Article 60: These provisions of the treaty do not affect the rights and obligations arising from state agreements signed by one of the signatory states between its signature and the date of its ratification. For countries that will later become members of the association, the provisions of this article refer to agreements signed before their creation. Article 13: Trade promotion agreements deal with non-tariff issues and tend to favour intra-regional trade flows. Article 11: Complementary economic agreements aim, among other things, to promote the maximum use of production factors, to encourage economic complementarity, to ensure a level playing field, to facilitate the entry of products into the international market and to promote the balanced and harmonious development of Member States. Article 9: Agreements within the scope are governed by the following general rules: regional or partial agreements may include tariff reduction and trade promotion, economic complement, agricultural trade, financial, tax, customs and health cooperation, environmental protection, scientific and technological cooperation, tourism promotion and technical standards. In particular, it is responsible for analysing the functioning of the integration process in all its aspects, promoting the convergence of agreements whose areas of application aim at their gradual multilateralisation and further promoting measures of economic integration. It is made up of plenipotentiaries from the Member States. Article 45: All benefits, favourable treatment, deductibles, immunities and privileges that have already been granted or will be granted under agreements between Member States or between Them and third countries to facilitate border traffic, apply exclusively to countries that have signed them or may have signed them. Article 19: Partial implementation agreements negotiated by relatively less developed countries with other Member States must, if necessary, comply with the provisions of Articles 8 and 9 of the Treaty. Not all Member States participate in the agreements on the partial scope and they will tend to create the necessary conditions to deepen the process of regional integration through their gradual multilateralisation. The rights and obligations set out in the partial scope agreement apply exclusively to signatories or candidate countries. Agreements on the scope of partial application may cover trade, economic supplementation, agriculture, trade promotion or other modalities. For more information on the partial complementary economic agreements between Peru and the Member States, click on the following links: Article 10: Trade agreements are exclusively focused on promoting trade between Member States and are subject to specific rules to be adopted for this purpose.
At the same time, Member States are working to put in place effective clearing mechanisms to take into account the negative effects that could affect intra-regional trade in relatively less developed landlocked countries. The Montevideo Treaty of 1980 is open to the accession of all Latin American countries. On 26 August 1999, the first accession to the 1980 Treaty of Montevideo took place with the accession of the Republic of Cuba as a member of ALADI. On 10 May 2012, the Republic of Panama became the 13th member of ALADI. Similarly, the accession of the Republic of Nicaragua was accepted at the sixteenth session of the Council of Ministers (Resolution 75 (XVI) of 11 August 2011. At present, Nicaragua is moving towards compliance with the conditions for alADI membership. ALADI opens its scope for the rest of Latin America through multilateral links or partial agreements with other countries and territories of integration of the continent (Article 25).